s e May 28, 2019

Beginners who have just started to engage in the gym, you need to lay the foundation, the foundation. Not every program is suitable for this. Behind each element of any complex is always a specific meaning.

Division into body parts.
As a rule, athletes train each muscle group separately. This type of training is considered the most effective for the growth of muscle mass. In order for the musculature to develop harmoniously, equal attention should be paid to each part of the body. As a rule, two or three exercises for each muscle group are sufficient for this. One muscle is worked out no more than once every seven to ten days.

Exercises
Composing yourself a training program, choose two or three exercises for each muscle group. But keep in mind that the first should go the basic exercise, which involves two or more joints. Many exercises can be performed in various ways. Over time, you will comprehend all these wisdom and will choose exercises so that at the same angle to load the same muscles.

Weight of weight
At the beginning of training, work with the smallest weights to feel the exercise and learn the technique. Only then begin to increase the load.
Never forget about the warm-up: do the first approach with a minimum weight to warm up the muscles and disperse the blood. In the second approach, slightly increase the burden. Well, for the third, pick up a weight with which you can do 8-10 repetitions. With him and continue to work.

Sets
Set is a combination of one exercise of several repetitions. Beginners each exercise should start with a warm-up set (with less weight), and then go to the worker.
When your preparatory period in training is over, start working so that you can perform the required number of repetitions to failure, that is, to a state where you are no longer able to do a single repetition above the norm. And the weight of the burden, respectively.

Technique
Many, in pursuit of great weight, completely forget about technology. And when performing an exercise, additional muscles are included in the work, sometimes completely excluding the work of the target muscle (cheating). For a beginner, cheating is absolutely unacceptable, since the exercise loses its meaning. Remember, you need to work with a weight that does not spoil the technique.

Breath
Never hold your breath for all repetition. Before each take a deep breath, and exhale at the most difficult point of recovery.

Pause between sets.
Usually the muscles have 45-90 seconds to rest. Big muscles need a little more time, smaller ones need a little less. Do not tighten your rest, do not chat with neighbors in the hall, do not waste your time.
It is also important to consider the weight with which you work. If you focus on strength training, relax longer. But shorter pauses will force you to work with smaller weights, but, on the other hand, this type of training has a better effect on muscle growth.

Amplitude of
movement. Perform all movements at full amplitude to maximize muscle tension.

Training frequency
If you worked on all muscle groups on Monday, then training cannot be repeated on Tuesday. The body needs at least 48 hours to recover. Do not forget that muscles grow when they rest, so create ideal conditions for them. If the muscle is at least a little sore, set it aside. But too rare training for beginners is also not suitable. The best option for you - workout every two or three days.

Duration of training
If you strictly follow this scheme, then the training should take you about 60 minutes. And remember that the quality of training is determined by the intensity, not the time spent in the hall.

s e May 28, 2019

Recommendations on nutrition before and after cardio are different from pre- and post-training after strength training. Cardio is jogging, walking, cycling, swimming and other activities that require continuous continuous movement and include the heart muscle, increasing heart rate. Thus, knowing that there is before and after cardio, you can significantly improve its performance.

Cardio - why and for what?

Aerobics is recommended not only to people who want to lose weight, but also for the health of the cardiovascular system. The number of cardio can be from one session to five per week, and the duration from 10 to 60 minutes. However, it depends on the goal, the initial data and the level of fitness.

It is always recommended to start with a minimum, gradually increasing the duration of the load. This is due to the rapid addiction to aerobic exercise, so if your goal is health promotion and weight loss, then the load should gradually increase. In the same way, you should also stop cardio workouts gradually, as well as increase calories after a diet.

Food before cardio

Previously, the ideal option was to do cardio in the morning before breakfast, because after an overnight fast, the body begins to actively use fat. Modern studies show that fat burning will increase if you take amino acids before exercise. These can be preformed amino acids or fast-digestible protein foods with a high nutritional value, like whey protein or egg proteins. 10-20 g of isolate or a pair of egg whites before morning cardio will suffice.

However, this option is suitable for people who have a relatively low percentage of subcutaneous fat. For those who have average or higher body fat percentage, the time of training does not matter, the main thing is that they exist at all.

It will be optimal to eat 2 or 3 hours before aerobics, if its duration is 30-45 minutes. For food, it is better to choose protein and slow carbohydrates with a low glycemic index, which will hold back insulin levels, provide enough energy before exercise and allow you to burn more calories from fat. In fact, you can safely do aerobics in 2-3 hours after your standard lunch.

During training

During aerobics can and should drink water. Otherwise, the water-salt balance will break, which will not lead to anything good. On forums I often meet messages that sweat is fat, which forces people not to drink and roll themselves upside down in a plastic bag. Sweat and fat are completely different substances. The body reacts to an increase in temperature and releases water to reduce it, which is in no way associated with fat loss. In addition, the use of cling film for weight loss poses serious heart problems.

Food after cardio

During aerobics, the body burns calories intensely. This process does not last long after training, so nutritionists do not recommend eating right after cardio. In some sources it is recommended to wait two full hours, in others - 45 minutes. I do not think it is advisable to refrain from eating for two hours, since cardio training is a direct path to muscle catabolism, as well as fasting after it. The destruction of the muscles will not be beneficial for losing weight, because they are the main factor of metabolism.
In my opinion, the best option is to use fast protein in 30-45 minutes after cardio (whey or egg protein), and after 45 minutes - slow carbohydrates. Or, as recommended by international nutritionist, writer and bodybuilder Chris Aceto, take protein right after cardio, and carbohydrates in an hour and a half.

To summarize:
Before morning cardio training, do not eat or take 3-6 g of amino acids, drink 10-20 g of whey protein, or eat 2-3 egg proteins.

Before day or evening aerobics there is 2-3 hours (the last meal: slow carbohydrates + protein).

During the workout drink water.

After cardio training (immediately or after 30-45 minutes), drink whey protein or eat a few egg proteins.

One and a half hours after aerobics eat slow carbohydrates.

Based on international nutrition specialist Chris Aceto.

s e May 28, 2019

Sometimes it is funny to see how much time and effort bodybuilders and other athletes spend on training the chest, without attaching to the values of the back. In clubs, I often see how muscular guys proudly walk in tight T-shirts and stick out their breasts like turkeys. Usually they have quite noticeable chest, shoulders and arms, but if you look at them from behind, then nine times out of ten it seems that they completely forgot about the back workouts.

And this is sad because a real bodybuilder is always striving for the proportional development of all muscle groups. Without a powerful back, you are nothing but a dumbass, training your own body only half and caring only for the muscles that can be seen in the mirror. Such "athletes" will be instantly swept off the stage in any bodybuilding tournament, because the back has gained tremendous importance since Dorian Yates together with Ronnie Coleman as a result of their training determined the new parameters of her development.

It is a fact that even among athletes who work hard on their backs, only a few achieve success. However, I am still convinced that everyone is able to build an impressive back if he follows the ten rules outlined below.

Do at least half the exercises with free weights.
Wherever you practice, you can always find a huge number of very different simulators of the day working out your back. In one fitness center, I counted more than twenty different machines of such brands as “Cybex”, “Hammer Strength”, “Icarian”, “Body Masters”, “Nautilus” and “Life Fitness”. There you could train your back for a whole year and change the simulators every week, without ever sitting in the same one. Sorry, but by the end of the year your back would not have become wider than at the beginning.

Work on simulators is an excellent addition to the basic training with free weights, but if you do not do at least a couple of heavy exercises on the day of your back workout, you will not stimulate noticeable muscle growth. Working with free weights is not easy. As Arthur Jones said, you need to try not to make it easier for you to do the exercises, but on the contrary - to make them even more difficult. Pulling a 150-kilogram staff in the slope is much easier than sitting on a gleaming chrome car for a belt - with a stopper installed on the same 150 kg. If you want your back to be bulging with muscles, then at least half of the exercises for it should be performed with free weights.

2. Do not replace pull-ups on the block.

This rule follows from the first, but it is so important that it deserves a separate item. Pulling ups is an absolutely necessary exercise for the back. Pulling ups is extremely difficult to do right, and I think that only 10% of all bodybuilders get the most out of them. Correct pull-ups imply a rise to the level when about five centimeters are left between the chest and the crossbar. At this point, you must stop, bring the shoulder blades together and strongly tighten the muscles of the upper back. Then it is necessary to slowly descend almost to the full extension of the arms, constantly maintaining the tension of the broadest muscles of the back, and begin a new ascent.

It is very easy to reproduce this technique in thrust on a high block, but this is where the difference lies. I have seen thousands of guys showcasing gorgeous shape in rods down with a weight close to the weight of their own body or even more, but they rarely had a back on which they wanted to look a second time. Show me a man who can perform a strict set of ten repetitions in pull-ups with a wide grip with 20 kg of additional burden on the belt, and I am ready to bet that he will have an excellent back.

Many practitioners avoid pull-ups, because they can not perform a large number of repetitions. But that is why they should pull up at every back workout. Everyone is able to improve performance in this exercise, provided regular work and rejection of the unit. I assure you that if you have achieved noticeable results in the pull-ups, your back will unequivocally say so.

3. Tighten your back muscles and feel their work.

You can train without feeling the work of certain muscle groups, but nevertheless forcing them to grow (a good example is the arms and legs). Not so with the back - if you have never felt the muscles work in various traction movements for the back, it is very likely that all this time the biceps and rear deltoids have done most of the work.

I knew one guy, whose shoulders and arms were almost impossible for his figure, but his back looked flat like a plain. Every time I watched him train his back, I saw that his biceps were swollen like airships. Like many others, he did not develop an effective connection between the brain and the back muscles.

For a long time working with my clients, I realized that it is not bad in disciplinary purposes to force them to mentally pronounce the syllable “tighten” and “stretch” during the positive and negative phase of each repetition. You may need lighter weights to truly feel the work of your back muscles, at least until you get comfortable with the technique. But there is nothing scary about it. If you have never felt their work and did not get pumped in them, most likely you have nothing to boast about the development of your rear.

4. Avoid cheating.

I saw athletes carelessly related to exercises in all muscle groups, but the most terrible observations concerned working on the back. More precisely, the overwhelming majority of those who practice traction use inertia. Take the dumbbell traction with one hand in the slope. Few can use in them 50 kg in a strict form, controlling the weight over the entire range of motion and achieving good muscle contraction at the top. However, every second person can take a dumbbell of 60-70 kg and perform convulsive movements, in form resembling pathetic attempts to start a stalled engine of a lawn mower.

I have a lot of respect for Ronnie Coleman, but in his film “Incredible,” he set a bad example for everyone by doing traction in the tilt of a 225 kg barbell! Its shape is terrible, terrible and terrible again! Ronnie throws the neck up and beats it with his chest, then beats it again, but at the lowest point of the amplitude. With such a technique, the back muscles get very little work, while the joints and ligaments experience enormous overload. At best, throwing up the scales will slow down your progress, at worst you will get a lower back injury or biceps injury and you will spend god knows how much time for rehabilitation. Forget about pride and work with weights that you can lift correctly. Another way is to continue the games with unbearable burdens and not get anything to be proud of.

5. Work at different angles.

The back is our most difficult muscle group. Biceps, for example, a lot easier. All you need to do for your biceps is to do all sorts of arms flexion. At the same time, at least one vertical traction movement (for example, pull-ups), one horizontal (traction to the belt while sitting), as well as pullovers, scars and hyperextension will be needed to load all parts of this huge and complex muscle complex. Advanced trainees must also change their grip. That is, you need not just pull the burden but also try to provide muscle stimulation at all possible angles.

6. Stretch between sets

One of the components of the process of creating a wide back is to dilute the shoulder blades to the sides. The stretching of the broadest muscles between the approaches helps in this. With one hand, grasp the vertical support, lean forward, head down below the arm, and pull the pelvis back until you feel the full stretch of the broadest muscle of this side of the body. Hold the stretched position for five seconds and do the same for the other side. Some fitness experts, including John Parillo, believe that aggressive stretching (when a muscle is pumped with blood) also stretches the muscle fascia, which promotes muscle growth. A fascia is a tight connective tissue that wraps skeletal muscle. According to my information, not a single study of this idea has been conducted, but many bodybuilders are sure of the great benefit of stretching.

7. Take care of the lower back.

Injuries are always sad, but in the case of problems with the lower back, many exercises for the back become simply impossible. You can forget about dead drafts, about any pulling movements with free weights and heavy scars, not to mention squats or bench presses. One of the rules to avoid a lower back injury is to never round the back, especially during tilting, dead dead and dead straight legs. Always keep a slight backbeat in all exercises. In this position, the lower back is the most stable and less prone to injury.

The second rule is to strive to increase the strength of the lower back. Work hard in hyperextension and bend forward with a barbell on your shoulders, constantly trying to increase weights. When you get to the point where you can perform ten good repetitions in hyperextension with an additional burden of 45 kg, your back will be in perfect order.

8. Regularly change workouts.

Do not work on the same program for more than three or four weeks. Change the exercises, the width and type of grip, repetition and pace, as well as the order of exercises. Once every few months, change the split so that the back workout occurs on a new day of the week or combines with work for another part of the body (but never train your back after biceps, otherwise they will not be able to help your back to load properly). Remember one axiom: if you continue to do what you have always done, you will have what you already have - and nothing more.

9. Do dead deadlines.

Almost every owner of a well-developed back places his achievements about dead deadlines. Ronnie Coleman and Johnnie Jackson are two excellent new examples, but bodybuilders of the past decade, such as Dorian Yates and Mike Francois (Mike Francois), have regularly included heavy dead thrusts in their programs. Let's look further - the stars of the 70s-80s Franco Columbus (Franco Columbia) and Samir Banu (Samir Bannout) were big fans of this exercise and had the best backs of their time.

I do not think that in order to extract maximum benefit from dead deadlines, it is imperative to pull from the floor. Partial thrust in the power frame from the level of the knees are also able to force a significant increase. I like partial dead thrusts, because they are more like an exercise for the back, in contrast to the usual deadlines, which, together with the upper back, heavily load and lower. Whichever option you choose, it should be the basis of your back workout program. Many people have succeeded through this exercise - and you should not ignore it.

10. Take care of the strength and development of the back.

The most important factor in the development of the back is a very strong desire for this development. There are too many guys in the halls, anxious about adding a centimeter to their hands or pumping their breasts, and not really worrying about their backs. If you do not see your own back in the mirror, this does not mean that others do not notice it.

s e April 24, 2019


Cardio is jogging, walking, cycling, swimming and other activities that require continuous continuous movement and include the heart muscle, increasing heart rate. Thus, knowing that there is before and after cardio, you can significantly improve its performance.

Cardio - why and for what? Aerobics is recommended not only to people who want to lose weight, but also for the health of the cardiovascular system. The number of cardio can be from one session to five per week, and the duration from 10 to 60 minutes. However, it depends on the goal, the initial data and the level of fitness. It is always recommended to start with a minimum, gradually increasing the duration of the load. This is due to the rapid addiction to aerobic exercise, so if your goal is health promotion and weight loss, then the load should gradually increase. In the same way, you should also stop cardio workouts gradually, as well as increase calories after a diet.

Food before cardio

Previously, the ideal option was to do cardio in the morning before breakfast, because after an overnight fast, the body begins to actively use fat. Modern studies show that fat burning will increase if you take amino acids before exercise. These can be preformed amino acids or fast-digestible protein foods with a high nutritional value, like whey protein or egg proteins. 10-20 g of isolate or a pair of egg whites before morning cardio will suffice. However, this option is suitable for people who have a relatively low percentage of subcutaneous fat. For those who have average or higher body fat percentage, the time of training does not matter, the main thing is that they exist at all.

It will be optimal to eat 2 or 3 hours before aerobics, if its duration is 30-45 minutes. For food, it is better to choose protein and slow carbohydrates with a low glycemic index, which will hold back insulin levels, provide enough energy before exercise and allow you to burn more calories from fat. In fact, you can safely do aerobics in 2-3 hours after your standard lunch.

During cardio training

During aerobics can and should drink water. Otherwise, the water-salt balance will break, which will not lead to anything good. On forums I often meet messages that sweat is fat, which forces people not to drink and roll themselves upside down in a plastic bag. Sweat and fat are completely different substances. The body reacts to an increase in temperature and releases water to reduce it, which is in no way associated with fat loss. In addition, the use of cling film for weight loss poses serious heart problems.

Food after cardio

During aerobics, the body burns calories intensely. This process does not last long after training, so nutritionists do not recommend eating right after cardio. In some sources it is recommended to wait two full hours, in others - 45 minutes. I do not think it is advisable to refrain from eating for two hours, since cardio training is a direct path to muscle catabolism, as well as fasting after it. The destruction of the muscles will not be beneficial for losing weight, because they are the main factor of metabolism.

The best option would be to use fast protein in 30-45 minutes after cardio (whey or egg protein), and after 45 minutes - slow carbohydrates. Or, as recommended by international nutritionist, writer and bodybuilder Chris Aceto, take protein right after cardio, and carbohydrates in an hour and a half.

To summarize: Before morning cardio training, do not eat or take 3-6 g of amino acids, drink 10-20 g of whey protein, or eat 2-3 egg proteins. Before day or evening aerobics there is 2-3 hours (the last meal: slow carbohydrates + protein). During the workout drink water. After cardio training (immediately or after 30-45 minutes), drink whey protein or eat a few egg proteins. One and a half hours after aerobics, eat slow carbohydrates.

s e April 24, 2019


For example, you press 90 kg 8 times. It's been a month, two months, and you still have to press the 90 kg 8 times. Naturally, no one will like it, perhaps even such that the interest in training will simply simply disappear.

What to do if there is stagnation? Let's discuss the reasons.

Causes of stagnation in the bench press:

Weak triceps - A common cause of stagnation. For example, the barbell goes down easily, rises easily too, but at some point (approximately in the middle) the bar suddenly stops or rises, but very hard and slow - this means that you have a weak triceps compared to the chest. In order to strengthen the triceps for bench press, there is such an exercise as - Press on the beam. It is done this way: you lie down on the bench for the bench as usual, the partner puts a beam on your chest, you take up the barbell, and as usual press it, but only until it touches the beam. (Putting the barbell on the timber is impossible, just a light touch). As the bar touches the bar, immediately lift the bar up. Make sure that your partner does not put pressure on your chest with a bar, he should rest calmly on your chest, and the partner only holds him so that he does not fall. Do this bench instead of the usual one, do three or three workouts. Press the bar, then again the usual bench press. When pressing on a bar, the weight increases by 5-20 kg compared to a regular bench press.

Weak chest - It is possible that your chest is already accustomed to the same load, and simply simply does not respond to training. In this case, you should try to change the number of approaches / repetitions. For example, you press 4 sets 8 times, change it to 5 sets 5 times. Also, change the exercise of the bench press on the bench, on the dumbbell bench press for a while (for example, on a month), and then return to the bar again. Add exercises wiring dumbbells lying, parallel bars. In general, give the breast the load that it does not expect. You need to press a weight that is difficult to shake 6, 7, 8 times in a 3-4 approach. If you are unable to shake the 8th repetition in the first approach, then the weight must be lost.

Improper technology is also a fairly frequent cause of stagnation. View the correct technique of bench press, you can in our public.

Overtraining breasts - some people think that the more they “hammer” their breasts, the faster they will grow, but this is not so. Chest enough to train 1-2 times a week, no more. It is necessary to give the breast a proper rest after exertion. Also, poor nutrition and lack of sleep can cause stagnation.
In general, in order to grow better power indicators in the bench press, you should avoid what is described above. Congestions are all. No need to worry if he has come to you (and sooner or later, everything will come exactly). It is necessary immediately, as the stagnation has come, to take measures for its “penetration”. Understand the causes of this stagnation, prepare a plan, and go through it. Often, stagnation can come on completely “funny” scales, for example 60 kg. In this case, it is not necessary to look for any kind of over the workout program, it’s enough to figure it all out, change your workouts a little and get everything right.

s e April 24, 2019

Supercompensation and the principle of building workouts
Learn what supercompensation is and how to use it to customize your training cycle to get maximum results.

Not a day goes by that I do not feel an irresistible desire to pick up a cold iron. To feel the pressure of the corrugated neck of a loaded barbell is my main drug, and I think yours too. Fortunately, hard work is bearing fruit - and we have scientific proof of that. Today it is quite normal to go to the gym and bring yourself to exhaustion and pain. At the subconscious level, you understand that you will inevitably become bigger and stronger, and “overtraining” is just as deceiving as the stripper’s chest (and even more deceiving than her attention during a private dance).

If you train in good faith, you get a reward. And all this thanks to supercompensation.

What is supercompensation?
This is the phase that is the result of hard training and intense recovery — a period when you are stronger and larger than you were originally (that is, compared to the original functionality). In fact, this means gaining serious muscle mass in a few weeks.

At each workout, the destruction of muscle fibers, depletion of key nutrients and, of course, fatigue. This leads to a drop in functionality. From this starting point, your body will recover, increasing muscle protein synthesis to restructure muscle tissue, pulling you back to your original level as quickly as possible. If the recovery is normal, there comes a period of supercompensation, during which your functionality exceeds the initial level. This means that your muscles grow faster than before.

Supercompensation: recovery graphics
All this comes from training to training, but to achieve maximum hypertrophy, it is necessary to break the supercompensation into separate phases - microcycles.

Using microcycles for supercompensation
As a rule, microcycles are used to bring you closer to a specific goal: in our case, to hypertrophy. Usually, a 3-4 week period is taken for this, during which the training is repeated three to six times. Famous examples of microcycles - German training and training Smolova Jr. Each of these microcycles lasts 4 weeks and has a clear goal.

For maximum supercompensation, you need to train to wear, so that your functionality is temporarily reduced. This is called overload. With the right approach, you will feel tired, weakened, and perhaps even seem less to yourself at the end of the microcycle. The key point is to train until it stops. The pain and suffering in the simulator will soon be justified.

The simplest way to achieve overload when working on hypertrophy is to increase the training volume week after week. This is easy to do, once a week adding one approach to each exercise. In this way, you will push your body beyond its capabilities, forcing it to do more work. However, in the end you will reach the limit, the body will not be able to cope with a greater load, and you will feel weak. It's good. This is overload. If you did everything right, it will take from three to six weeks.

Many people confuse overload with overtraining. There is little common here. If you are overtrained, you constantly feel weak and tired, and it takes months to fully recover. True, I have never heard of a powerlifter or bodybuilder who would have overtrained, but I heard that this happens with triathletes. During an overload from overtraining, a very fine line separates you.

Supercompensation unloading

As soon as you get to the overload, the magic begins. Training volume is automatically reduced by 50-70%, and the intensity increases by 5%. For example, if you squatted from 100 kg and made 5 sets of 10 each last week of the overload phase, you should reduce the volume to 2 sets of 10 and increase the working weight to 105 kg (or even more). Such unloading lasts a week or less.

The purpose of the increase in intensity is to continue to generate training stimuli, despite the sharp reduction in volume required for recovery. From the graph (above) it is clear that recovery is the first step to supercompensation. In fact, it is absolutely necessary if you want to quickly build up muscles and gather a rich crop in each muscle-building microcycle. And since recovery has such a value in the phase of supercompensational unloading, it is useful to recall some methods of recovery - sleep and nutrition.

Sleep and nutrition are the yin and yang of your training program. You have already heard about this a million times, and therefore remind one more time it definitely does not hurt. Here is what you need to know about recovery in the phase of supercompensational unloading:

s e April 24, 2019

How obesity impairs mental capacity
Being overweight is not only a problem with metabolism, with the heart and vessels, it is also a problem with the brain. It is known that people with obesity deteriorate mental abilities, and with age they are more likely to develop dementia and other disorders associated with the brain.

There are many medical works devoted to the relationship of overweight and weakening of cognitive functions, but only in recent years, researchers have begun to understand exactly how obesity harms the brain.

Experiments on animals have shown that microglia need to blame for this; they need microglial cells that perform immune functions in the brain, protecting nerve tissue from infections and clearing it from unnecessary and dangerous molecular cell debris.

It turned out that in obesity, microglial cells eat up on the neurons the so-called dendritic spines - special protrusions on the cell membrane, where the dendritic process is ready to form a connection-synapse with another neuron. In other words, microglia reduces the number of potential interneuronal contacts, and, consequently, the number of potential neural chains. And as we know, cognitive functions - memory, ability to learn, etc. - directly depend on the ability of nerve cells to form synapses.

Researchers at Princeton University have demonstrated that if you prohibit microglia from biting outgrowths on dendrites, it helps to improve cognitive functions, despite being obese. Elise Cope (Elise Cope) and her colleagues suppressed the activity of microglial cells in different ways: either with special substances or with the help of genetic modification, when the gene encoding the receptor was turned off in microglia cells, through which microglia looked for dendrites for feeding.

And, as stated in an article in the Journal of Neuroscience, mice with obesity, with which all this was done, normally passed tests for memory, then like fat mice, in which microglia were not suppressed, memory deteriorated. The authors of the work emphasize that microglia harmed the brain, regardless of what kind of food a mouse was fat - overweight itself was important. Obviously, some peculiarities of metabolism in an obese organism cause microglial cells to show unnecessary activity, and in the future it is necessary to understand what exactly irritates microglia during obesity.

In general, microglia cells, when something starts to go wrong with them, can cause a lot of trouble. We once wrote that Alzheimer's disease develops with the connivance of microglia, and a year ago Cell Metabolism published an article stating that microglial cells themselves can be one of the causes of obesity, forcing more to eat.

s e April 24, 2019

Muscle memory is an acquired ability of the body to restore muscle mass and strength after a long period of rest, developing under the influence of physical activity, leading to long-term structural restructuring (change) of muscle and nerve cells.

The existence of this phenomenon, in certain circles (people paying attention to their physical development), does not require proof and is an unconditional fact. After a long break and the subsequent return to the gym, “experienced” (trained people) restore physical strength and volume faster than beginners recruit them. Muscle memory explains why this is possible.

The emergence of such possibilities is associated with physical changes and the formation of memory (unconscious) in the motor cortex.

Mechanisms of development of muscle (muscular) memory and recovery under its influence
Muscular memory has several physiological components, the development mechanisms of which are studied and already supported by a number of studies.

P reorganization of fibers (cells) of muscles

Muscles consist of fibers (cells), each of which is a syncytium, that is, the result of the fusion of several cells. The process will combine the cytoplasm, but not the nucleus, so the cell contains several nuclei (myonuclei), evenly distributed along its length and surrounded by ribosomes, in which protein synthesis occurs. As muscles are subjected to physical exertion (training), an increase in the number of nuclei occurs, which control the synthesis of more contractile proteins (actin and myosin) and lead to an increase in muscle mass (fibers).

Research scientists have shown that after the cessation of training and muscle atrophy in the course of several months, additional nuclei do not disappear, but simply reduce the functional activity and remain in “standby mode”. Given these results, we can conclude that these changes are long-term. With the resumption of the load, additional nuclei (more nuclei — faster growth) begin to function actively: protein synthesis and hypertrophic processes that are regulated by nuclear DNA are enhanced. As a result, recovery (increase) of muscle mass occurs in a shorter time.

With age, people muscle atrophy and very poorly restored after damage, because the pool of satellite cells is increasingly depleted and new nuclei in the fibers almost do not enter. To avoid these problems, it is necessary in youth to engage in strength exercises in order to accumulate a supply of myonuclear, sufficient to maintain the muscle mass in old age.

The formation of additional nerve endings

As a result of loads (training), thickening (hyperplasia) and an increase in the number (hypertrophy) of fibers occur. Their number increases as a result of: splitting the hypertrophied fibers into slightly thinner ones, the growth of new muscle kidneys, the formation of undifferentiated cells (satellite cells), which are transformed into myoblasts and further into muscle tubes. Before splitting, there is a reorganization of their motor innervation (innervation of skeletal muscles), as a result additional motor nerve endings are formed on hypertrophied fibers. Due to this, after splitting, each new fiber has its own motor innervation.

MMMotor training, the development of procedural (unconscious) muscle memory
Motor learning is a form of procedural (unconscious) memory that is formed as a result of the execution of a specific motor task through multiple repetitions, until the neural system communicates as necessary.

This component of muscular memory is similar to the standard memorization of information.

Until recently, this phenomenon was associated exclusively with motor (or procedural) training, which leads to an improvement in neuromuscular junction as a result of increased excitability of motor neurons and the emergence of new synapses. Also crucial in the learning process are the basal ganglia and the cerebellum.

At the first study of the motor task (exercise performance), the movement is often slow, hard and easily destroyed without attention. With practice, it becomes smoother, a reduction in the stiffness of the limbs occurs, and the muscular activity necessary to perform is performed without conscious effort.
In the motor cortex of a trained athlete, who started training after a break, there is an accelerated growth of new vessels and improved nutrition of the motor areas, secreting neurotrophic factors.

P.S.Muscular memory is a huge motivating factor for the resumption of activity and our further development.